Information For Political Theory

I watched a young Japanese woman explain why she was studying martial arts in Japan. She explained that the knowledge and skills she gained from her studies of ancient self-defense gave her power and confidence and it made her unafraid. She said that kind of power and self-assurance made it very easy to be kind. Knowledge is power, the old saying goes. And the power that knowledge brings can make it easy to be kind. To that belief, I offer the following information:

The following sources come from Department of Politics Princeton University Reading List for the General Examination in Political Theory (revised October 2010, to take effect with general exams of October 2011.  MarksNotes found the literature.  Enjoy.

Ancient and medieval political theory

Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War


Plato, Apology


Plato, Crito

Plato, Republic

Plato, Statesman

Plato, Laws

Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics;

— use translate button

Aristotle, Politics

Cicero, On the Commonwealth [De Republica] ,

Cicero, Dream of Scipio

Cicero, On the Laws [De Legibus],

Cicero, On Duties [De Officiis]

Augustine, The City of God,

Aquinas, Summa contra Gentiles,

Aquinas, De Regimine Principum

Aquinas, Summa Theologiae

Modern political theory

*Machiavelli, The Prince;

Machiavelli, The Discourses

Hobbes, Leviathan

Locke, First Treatise of Civil Government, Second Treatise of Civil Government;

Locke, A Letter Concerning Toleration

Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws,

Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature,

Rousseau, Discourse on the Sciences and Arts;–%20First%20Discourse.pdf

Discourse on the Origin of Inequality;

Rousseau, On The Social Contract

Bentham, Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation,

Bentham, Nonsense Upon Stilts (in Bentham, Rights, Representation, and Reform, pp. 319-401)

Smith, The Wealth of Nations,

Jay, Madison, and Hamilton, The Federalist Papers,

Burke, Pre-Revolutionary Writings,

Kant, Idea, for a Universal History

Kant, What is Enlightenment?;

Kant, Conjectures on the Beginning of ‘Human History;

Kant, On the Common Saying: “That May Be Correct in Theory, but It Is Of No Use in Practice,


Kant, Toward Perpetual Peace:

Kant, Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals

Kant, The Metaphysics of Morals:

Hegel, The Phenomenology of Spirit

Tocqueville, Democracy in America

Marx, On the Jewish Question

Marx, Contribution to the Critique of Hegel ‘s Philosophy of Right: Introduction;

Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844

Marx, The German Ideology, Part I

Marx, Manifesto of the Communist Party;

Marx, Capital

Marx, Critique of the Gotha Programme

Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte,

Marx, The Civil War in France

1.S. Mill, Utilitarianism

Mill, On Liberty

Mill, Considerations on Representative Government

Mill, The Subjection of Women

Mill, Principles of Political Economy,%20Principles%20of%20Political%20Economy.pdf

Nietzsche, On the Uses and Disadvantages of History for Life

Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil

Nietzsche, Genealogy of Morals

Weber, The Profession and Vocation of Politics

Weber, Suffrage and Democracy in Germany

Weber, Parliament and Government in Germany under a New Political Order

Weber: Political Writings


These are some additional references:


The Federalist Papers: No. 10

The complete list:

Department of Politics Princeton University

Reading List for the General Examination in Political Theory (revised October 2010, to take effect with general exams of October 2011)

The examination will consist of three parts:  (I) Ancient and medieval, (II) Modern, and (III) Norms and concepts. Students will be asked to write on one question in each part chosen from two or more that will be offered trying to avoid excessive overlap of themes or theorists. Each essay will have equal weight in determining the exam grade.

This reading list is a guide to preparation for the exam. It is not a required syllabus: students are not expected to have read all of the works listed. Works by members of the Princeton faculty in political theory are omitted.

The reading list is divided into three sections corresponding to the three parts of the exam, plus an appendix on methodology in the study of political thought. But this division is only a convenience. Political theory is a single subject. Responses to questions in the historical parts of the exam will almost certainly benefit from a grasp of pertinent normative and analytical materials and essays on normative themes are likely to be strengthened by a critical understanding of canonical texts.

Parts I and II. The readings listed in the historical sections combine essential texts by canonical writers and secondary readings pertinent to each writer’s work. The list of canonical works reflects the faculty’s judgment of the works a student should command by the time of the general examination; it does not aspire to be comprehensive. The secondary readings aim to illustrate an array of perspectives in the recent scholarly literature. While no particular secondary readings are specifically required, it will be difficult to demonstrate knowledge of the primary thinkers listed without some appreciation of the major controversies about their works.

Ten thinkers in parts I and II are marked with an asterisk (*).  At least one (but perhaps only one) question in each of Parts I and II of the exam will be answerable with reference to one or more of the starred thinkers.  The other questions in those Parts may require answers referring either wholly or in part to some one or more of the unstarred thinkers.  Normally all of the questions in these parts can be answered with reference to writers on the full list, although from time to time a question may refer to other theorists or works studied in graduate seminars offered in the two years preceding the exam.

Those who would benefit from further study of the major texts are urged to take or audit the Politics 301/303 sequence, and (if taking them for credit) to take the corresponding graduate reading courses (Politics 701/703). Reading courses should be arranged with the instructor before the semester begins.

Part III. The readings listed are intended to represent a range of views and approaches to several basic concepts and normative doctrines found in contemporary political theory. Again, the list does not aim to be comprehensive. Although students are not expected to be conversant with all of the works listed, they should be familiar with the leading ideas and concerns in the contemporary literature under most of the subheadings.

Appendix.  In addition to studying the thinkers and concepts listed in the three main portions of the reading list students may find it helpful to do some reading about general issues of methodology in the study of political thought. The works listed in the Appendix represent several perspectives.

I. Ancient and medieval political theory
Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War, I; II; 1-50, 70-86; V, 84-1 15; VI [entire; not 1-32 only]; VII, 60-87 W. Robert Connor, Thucydides Steven Forde, The Ambition to Rude Raymond Geuss, Outside Ethics, ch.13 Gerald M. Mara, The Civic Conversations of Thucydides and Plato:  classical political philosophy and the limits of democracy S. Sara Monoson, Plato’s Democratic Entanglements, ch.3  Josiah Ober, Political Dissent in Democratic Athens, ch. 2

*Plato, Apology; Crito; Republic; Statesman; Laws, Stephanus sections 624-632, 641-650, 659-664, 690-695, 699-702, 704-705, 709-747, 752-780, 853-858, 861-864, 875, 961-969 Julia Annas, Introduction to Plato’s Republic Danielle Allen, Why Plato Wrote Allan Bloom, ‘Interpretive Essay’ in The Republic of Plato, ed. Bloom Christopher Bobonich, Plato’s Utopia Recast, ch. 5 J. Peter Euben, The Tragedy of Political Theory, chs 7, 8                                                  Terence Irwin, Plato’s Ethics, chs 1, 11-18, 20 Josiah Ober, Political Dissent in Democratic Athens, chs 1, 4 C.D.C. Reeve, Philosopher-Kings Malcolm Schofield, Plato, Political Philosophy Gregory Vlastos, Socrates: Ironist and Moral Philosopher, and Platonic Studies, nos 5 and 6

*Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics; Politics John Cooper, Reason and Human Good in Aristotle Jill Frank, A Democracy of Distinction Richard Kraut, Aristotle: Political Philosophy Jonathan Lear, Aristotle: The Desire to Understand Stephen Salkever, Finding the Mean Arlene Saxonhouse, Fear of Diversity, Part III (chs 8, 9) Aristide Tessitore, Reading Aristotle’s Ethics Bernard Yack, The Problems of a Political Animal

Cicero, On the Commonwealth [De Republica], Bks I, entire; III, entire; VI, Dream of Scipio only; On the Laws [De Legibus], Bks I and II, entire; On Duties [De Officiis], entire Anthony Everitt, Cicero Bryan Garsten, Saving Persuasion, ch. 5 A.A. Long, ‘Cicero’s politics in De officiis [On Duties],’ in A. Laks and M. Schofield (eds), Justice and Generosity Malcolm Schofield, Saving the City, ch. 10 E. W. Steel, Cicero, Rhetoric, and Empire Neal Wood. Cicero‘s Social and Political Thought

Augustine, The City of God, Books II-V; VII, 1-11; XIV, 28; XV, 1-5; XIX, 4-22, 25-28; XX, 1-2; XXII, 1-8, 30 Peter Brown, Augustine of Hippo Henry Chadwick, Augustine Herbert A. Deane, The Political and Social Ideas of St. Augustine Peter Garnsey, Ideas of Slavery from Aristotle to Augustine, ch. 13 R.A. Markus, Saeculum: history and society in the theology of St. Augustine R. Martin, ‘The two cities in Augustine’s political philosophy,’ Journal of History of Ideas 33 (1972), 195-216 Reinhold Niebuhr, ‘Augustine’s Political Realism,’ in Christian Realism and Political Problems J. Rist, Augustine
Aquinas, Summa contra Gentiles, I:3, 4, 7, 8; II: 68; III: 2,3,25, 27, 32, 37, 48, 51, 53. 63, 64, 81; IV: 54, 76; De Regimine Principum 1-6, 12, 14, 15; Summa Theologiae I, qq. 2, 12, 20, 75, 79, 85, 92. 96, 98; I-II, qq. 3,5,21, 62, 81, 90-97 [Treatise on Law], 100, 105, 109; II-II, qq. 10. 11, 12, 40, 42, 57, 60, 64, 66, 69, 77, 78, 194, 110, 150, 152, 154; III, qu. 8; Supplement, qu. 52 (these selections can be found in St. Thomas Aquinas on Politics and Ethics [Norton Critical Editions], ed. P. Sigmund).

J.H. Burns, ed., Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought J.P. Canning, A History of Medieval Political Thought 300-1450 (1996), ch. 3 A.P. d’Entreves, Natural Law John Finnis, Aquinas: Moral, Political, and Legal Theory Norman Kretzmann and Eleonore Stump, eds. Cambridge Companion to Aquinas: esp. ch. by Sigmund     N. Kretzmann, A. Kenny, J. Pinborg, E. Stumb, eds, The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy: esp. chapters by Barnes, Dunbabin, Luscombe (both) and McGrade

II. Modern political theory
*Machiavelli, The Prince; The Discourses F. Gilbert, Machiavelli and Guicciardini: Politics and History in Sixteenth-Century Italy (1984 edn) Mark Hulliung, Citizen Machiavelli      Harvey Mansfield, Machiavelli ‘s Virtue Hannah Pitkin, Fortune is a Woman J.G.A. Pocock, The Machiavellian Moment Quentin Skinner, Machiavelli * Hobbes, Leviathan Jean Hampton, Hobbes and the Social Contract Tradition Noel Malcolm, Aspects of Hobbes Michael Oakeshott, ‘Introduction to Leviathan’ in Rationalism in Politics Quentin Skinner, Reason and Rhetoric, ch. 8; Visions of Politics, vol. 3; Hobbes and Republican Liberty  Leo Strauss, The Political Philosophy of Hobbes Richard Tuck, Hobbes and Philosophy and Government, 1572-1651

* Locke, First Treatise of Civil Government, §§1, 3, 23, 33, 40-48, 56, 58, 66, 86-87, 89-94; Second Treatise of Civil Government; A Letter Concerning Toleration Richard Ashcraft, Revolutionary Politics and Locke ‘s Two Treatises of Government John Dunn, The Political Thought of John Locke     Ruth Grant, John Locke ‘s Liberalism Peter Laslett, ‘Introduction’ to CUP edition of Two Treatises of Government A. John Simmons, The Lockean Theory of Rights; On the Edge of Anarchy; Moral Principles and Political Obligations, ch. on tacit consent James Tully, An Approach to Political Philosophy: Locke in Contexts       Jeremy Waldron, God, Locke, and Equality  —–,  The Right to Private Property, ch. 6 J. Horton and S. Mendus (eds) John Locke: A letter concerning toleration in focus Montesquieu, The Spirit of the Laws, Bks 1-6; Bk 7 chs 1, 9. 15-17; Bk 8; Bk 9 chs 1-5; Bk 10 chs 1 – 11; Bk 11 chs 1-6; Bk 12, chs 1-4; Bk 14 chs 1-6, 9-10, 15; Bk 15; Bk 16, chs 1-4, 9-10; Bk 17; Bk 18 chs 1-17; Bk 19 chs 1-16, 27; Bk 20 chs 1-14, 23; Bk 21 chs 1-5, 20-23; Bk 23, chs 28-29; Bk 24, chs 1-8, 19-20; Bk 25 chs 1-2, 9-15; Bk 26, chs 1-3, 20-23; Bk 29, chs 1, 16, 19

H.E. Ellis, ‘Montesquieu’s Modern Politics: The Spirit of the Laws and the problem of modern monarchy in Old Regime France,’ History of Political Thought, 10 (1989), 665-700 Nannerl Keohane, Philosophy and the State in France: The Renaissance to the Enlightenment  Thomas Pangle, Montesquieu’s Philosophy of Liberalism Melvin Richter, ‘Comparative Political Analysis in Montesquieu and Tocqueville,’ Comparative Politics 1 (1969), 129-160 Judith Shklar, Montesquieu R. Shackelton, ed.. Essays on Montesquieu and the Enlightenment D. Carrithers, M. Mosher, and P. Rahe (eds), Montesquieu’s Science of Politics

Hume, A Treatise of Human Nature, Book III. Parts I and II; ‘Of the Original Contract’ in Essays    Stephen Buckle, Natural Law and the Theory of Property: Grotius to Hume, ch.5 Duncan Forbes, Hume’s Philosophical Politics Knud Haakonssen, The Science of a Legislator: the Natural Jurisprudence of David Hume and Adam Smith David Miller, Philosophy and Ideology in Hume’s Political Thought Frederick Whelan, Order and Artifice in Hume’s Political Philosophy Alexander Broadie, ed., Cambridge Companion to the Scottish Enlightenment          R.H.Campell and A.S. Skinner (eds), The Origins and Nature of the Scottish Enlightenment

*Rousseau, Discourse on the Sciences and Arts; Discourse on the Origin of Inequality; On The Social Contract (recommended: Emile and The Government of Poland) Joshua Cohen, A Free Community of Equals N.J.H. Dent, Rousseau: An Introduction to his Psychological, Social, and Political Theory Arthur Melzer, The Natural Goodness of Man: On the System of Rousseau’s Thought Frederick Neuhouser, ‘Freedom, Dependence, and the General Will,’ Philosophical Review, 102 (1993), 363-395 and Rousseau’s Theodicy of Self-Love:  Evil, Rationality, and the Drive for Recognition Susan Okin, Women in Western Political Thought, pt. III Judith Shklar, Men and Citizens Jean Starobinski, Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Transparency and Obstruction  Patrick Riley, ed., Cambridge Companion to Rousseau

Bentham, Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation, chs. 1-5, 10. 12-14, 17; Nonsense Upon Stilts (in Bentham, Rights, Representation, and Reform, pp. 319-401) Lea Campos Boralevi, Bentham and the Oppressed H.L.A. Hart, Essays on Bentham  Douglas G. Long, Bentham on Liberty Mary P. Mack, Jeremy Bentham Frederick Rosen. Jeremy Bentham and Representative Democracy  Nancy Rosenblum, Bentham ‘s Theory of the State Philip Schofield, Utility and Democracy: The Political Thought of Jeremy Bentham

Smith, The Wealth of Nations, Bk I chs. 1-3; Bk III chs. 1,4; Bk IV, chs.1-3, 5 (including the “Digression”), 7 (Part 3); Bk V chs. 1, 2 (Part I); The Theory of Moral Sentiments Samuel Fleischacker. On Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations: A Philosophical Companion  Charles Griswold, Adam Smith and the Virtues of Enlightenment Knud Haakonssen, The Science of a Legislator: the Natural Jurisprudence of David Hume and Adam Smith Albert Hirschman. The Passions and the Interests Istvan Hont and Michael Ignatieff, eds., Wealth and Virtue Istvan Hont, Jealousy of Trade (Cambridge, Mass., 2005), ‘Introduction’ and chs 5-6 Andrew Skinner and Thomas Wilson (eds) Essays on Adam Smith

Jay, Madison, and Hamilton, The Federalist Papers, nos 1, 10, 14-18, 37, 47-49, 51-57, 62-63, 70-71, 78, 84; The Anti-Federalist, ed. H. Storing, abridged M. Dry; Essays of ‘Brutus,’ nos 1-4 David Epstein, The Political Theory of the Federalist   Henry May, The Enlightenment in America Thomas Pangle, The Spirit of Modern Republicanism J. G. A. Pocock, ‘1776: The Revolution against Parliament,’ in Pocock (ed.), Three British Revolutions: 1641, 1688 and 1776, pp. 265-88 P. Rahe, Republics, Ancient and Modern, vol.3: Inventions of Prudence: Constituting the American Regime Rogers Smith, Civic Ideals H. J. Storing, What the Anti-Federalists were For  Gordon Wood, The Creation of the American Republic, chs 2, 12, 13, 15  Michael Zuckert, The Natural Rights Republic

Burke, Pre-Revolutionary Writings, ed. I. Harris; Reflections on the Revolution in France; Speech on Fox’s East India Bill; Speech in Opening the Impeachment of Warren Hastings (for Fox and Hastings speeches, see D. Bromwich, ed., On Empire, Liberty, and Reform; or J. Welsh and D. Fidler, eds, Empire and Community) David Bromwich, ‘Introduction’ to Burke, On Empire, Liberty, and Reform       James Conniff, The Useful Cobbler: Edmund Burke and the Politics of Progress   Conor Cruise O’Brien, The Great Melody J.G.A.Pocock, Politics, Language, and Time, ch. 6; Virtue, Commerce and History, ch. 10 Frederick Whelan, Edmund Burke and India Stephen K. White, Edmund Burke: Modernity, Politics, and Aesthetics *Kant, Idea, for a Universal History; What is Enlightenment?; Conjectures on the Beginning of ‘Human History; ‘On the Common Saying: “That May Be Correct in Theory, but It Is Of No Use in Practice,” part II; Toward Perpetual Peace: Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals; The Metaphysics of Morals: Preface, Introduction, ‘Doctrine of Right’: Introduction through §27, §§41-42, 43-62; ‘Doctrine of Virtue’: Preface, Introduction, §§4, 11, 12, 16-18, 19-22, 29-31, 34-35, 37-38, 47-48  Katrin Flikschuh, Kant and Modern Political Thought Leslie Mullholland, Kant’s System of Rights Sankar Muthu, Enlightenment against Empire  Onora O’Neill, Constructions of Reason, chs 1, 2 Allen D. Rosen, Kant’s Theory of Justice Arthur Ripstein, Force and Freedom Allen Wood, Kant’s Ethical Thought Mark Timmons, ed., Kant’s Metaphysics of Morals: Interpretive Essays Howard S. Williams, Kant’s Political Philosophy

*Hegel, The Phenomenology of Spirit: Preface; Introduction; Lordship and Bondage; Absolute Freedom and Terror; The Philosophy of Right Shlomo Avineri, Hegel’s Theory of the Modern State Frederick Neuhouser, Foundations of Hegel ‘s Social Theory    Z.A. Pelczynski, ed., The State and Civil Society Robert Pippin, Idealism as Modernism: Hegelian Variations, chs 1, 4, 5  Charles Taylor, Hegel Allen Wood, Hegel ‘s Ethical Thought

Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Intro.; Vol. 1: Part I, chs 3-5; Part II, chs 1-4, 6-10; Vol. II: Part I, chs 1-4, 8, 10, 13, 17, 20; Part II, chs 1-8, 11-15, 18, 20; Part III, chs 8, 9, 1 1. -13, 17, 19, 21, 22; Part IV, chs 1-8
George Armstrong Kelly, The Humane Comedy: Constant, Tocqueville, and French Liberalism       Jack Lively, Social and Political Thought of Alexis de Tocqueville Pierre Manent. Tocqueville and the Nature of Democracy L. Siedentop, Tocqueville, and ‘Two Liberal Traditions’ in A. Ryan, ed., The Idea of Freedom      Cheryl Welch, De Tocqueville Sheldon Wolin, Tocqueville Between Two Worlds

*Marx, ‘On the Jewish Question,’ Contribution to the Critique of Hegel ‘s Philosophy of Right: Introduction; Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844; The German Ideology, Part I; Manifesto of the Communist Party; Capital, selections from vols I and III; Critique of the Gotha Programme, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, The Civil War in France (excerpts in The Marx-Engels Reader, 2nd edition, ed. Tucker) Shlomo Avineri, The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx    Isaiah Berlin, ‘Historical Materialism,’ in Four Essays on Liberty    G.A. Cohen, Karl Marx’s Theory of History Jon Elster, Making Sense of Marx Leszek Kolakowski, Main Currents of Marxism David Leopold, The Young Karl Marx  Steven Lukes, Marxism and Morality G. Stedman Jones, ‘Introduction’ to The Communist Manifesto, ed. G. Stedman Jones  Jonathan Wolff, Why Read Marx Today?   Allen W. Wood, Karl Marx

*J. S. Mill, Utilitarianism; On Liberty; Considerations on Representative Government; The Subjection of Women; Principles of Political Economy, 7th edition, Book IV, chs 6-7, Book V, chs 1, 11 F. R. Berger, Happiness, Justice and Freedom: The Moral and Political Philosophy of J.S. Mill         S. Collini, D. Winch, and J. Burrow, That Noble Science of Politics Susan Okin, Women in Western Political Thought, ch. 9 Andrew Pyle. ed., Liberty: Contemporary Responses to John Stuart Mill Alan Ryan, J.S. Mill John Skorupski, John Stuart Mill John Skorupski, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Mill C.L. Ten, Mill on Liberty, esp. ch. 2  Nadia Urbinati, Mill on Democracy   Dennis Thompson, John Stuart Mill and Representative Government Nietzsche, On the Uses and Disadvantages of History for Life; Beyond Good and Evil; Genealogy of Morals Steven Aschheim, The Nietzsche Legacy in Germany Peter Bergmann, Nietzsche: The Last Antipolitical German Alexander Nehamas, Nietzsche: Life as Literature Richard Schacht, ed., Nietzsche, Genealogy Morality; and Nietzsche’s Postmoralism    Tracy Strong, Friedrich Nietzsche and the Politics of Transfiguration Michael Tanner, Nietzsche Raymond Geuss, ‘Nietzsche and genealogy’; ‘Kultur, Bildung, Geist’; and ‘Nietzsche and morality,’ all repr. in Geuss, Morality, Culture, and History  Brian Leiter, Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Nietzsche on Morality
Weber, ‘The Profession and Vocation of Politics,’ ‘Suffrage and Democracy in Germany,’ and ‘Parliament and Government in Germany under a New Political Order,’ all in Weber: Political Writings, ed. P. Lassman and R. Speirs; ‘The Types of Legitimate Domination,’ in Max Weber: Economy and Society, ed. G. Roth and C. Wittich, vol. 1; ‘Economy and Law,’ in ibid., vol. 2 Peter Breiner, Max Weber and Democratic Politics
Wolfgang Mommsen, Max Weber and German Politics, 1890-1920 Chris Thornhill, ‘Max Weber’, in: Political Theory in Modern Germany Richard Bellamy, ‘Liberalism Disenchanted’, in: Liberalism and Modern Society Wilhelm Hennis, Max Weber: Essays in Reconstruction Lawrence Scaff, Fleeing the Iron Cage

III. Norms and concepts
1. Authority and political obligation Hannah Arendt, ‘What is Authority?,’ in Arendt, Between Past and Future Hugo Bedau, ed. Civil Disobedience in Focus (essays by Thoreau, King, Haksar, Raz, Greenawalt)   Ronald Dworkin, Law’s Empire, ch 6 John Rawls, A Theory of Justice  Joseph Raz, The Morality of Freedom J. Raz, ‘Introduction’ to Raz (ed.) Authority A. John Simmons, Moral Principles and Political Obligations; Justification and Legitimacy  Michael Walzer, Obligations    Max Weber, ‘Politics as a Vocation’, ‘Bureaucracy,’ ‘The Sociology of Charismatic Authority,’ in H. H. Gerth and C. W. Mills (eds) From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, chs 4, 8-9 Robert Paul Wolff, In Defense of Anarchy

2. Constitutionalism and the rule of law   Ronald Dworkin, Law’s Empire; Freedom ‘s Law Jon Elster, ed., Democracy and Constitutionalism John Hart Ely, Democracy and Distrust: A Theory of Judicial Review F.A. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty John Rawls, A Theory of Justice and Political Liberalism Joseph Raz, The Authority of Law and Ethics and the Public Domain. ch. 17 Jeremy Waldron. Liberal Rights Jeremy Waldron, Law and Disagreement

3. Democracy

Joshua Cohen, Philosophy, Politics, and Democracy Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition Monica Brito Vieira and David Runciman, Representation  Robert Dahl, Democracy and its Critics Anthony Downs, An Economic Theory of Democracy David Estlund, ed.. Democracy (papers by Christiano, Waldron. Cohen, Habermas. Miller)  David Estlund, Democratic Authority   Amy Gutmann and Dennis Thompson, Democracy and Disagreement Jurgen Habermas, Between Facts and Norms Bernard Manin, The Principles of Representative Government Hannah Pitkin. The Concept of Representation  Adam Przeworksi, ‘A Minimalist Conception of Democracy: A Defense,’ in I. Shapiro and C.   Hacker -Cordon (eds) Democracy’s Value John Rawls, A Theory of Justice John Rawls, Political Liberalism Carl Schmitt, The Crisis of Parliamentary Democracy J.A. Schumpeter, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, Part IV Iris M. Young, Democracy and Inclusion

4.  Freedom
Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition Isaiah Berlin, Four Essays on Liberty  Patrick Devlin, The Enforcement of Morals  Ronald Dworkin, Taking Rights Seriously Joel Feinberg, Rights, Justice and the Bounds of Liberty H.L.A. Hart, Law, Liberty, and Morality     G. C. MacCallum, ‘Negative and Positive Freedom,’ Phil. Rev. 76 (1967), 312-34, repr. in P. Laslett and    others, eds., Philosophy, Politics and Society, 4th series David Miller, ed., Liberty (esp. articles by Hayek, Arendt, MacCallum, Cohen, Taylor, Skinner)          Robert Nozick, Anarchy State and Utopia John Rawls, A Theory of Justice John Rawls, Political Liberalism Joseph Raz, The Morality of Freedom T. M. Scanlon, ‘A Theory of Freedom of Expression,’ Philosophy & Public Affairs 1 (1971)       Quentin Skinner, Liberty Before Liberalism Jeremy Waldron, Liberal Rights
5. Global justice David Miller, On Nationality David Miller, National Responsibility and Global Justice Joshua Cohen, ‘Minimalism about Human Rights: the best we can hope for?’ Journal of Political Philosophy 12 (2004) 190-213 Thomas Nagel, ‘The Problem of Global Justice,’ Philosophy & Public Affairs 33 (2005) 113-47  Thomas Pogge, World Poverty and Human Rights John Rawls, The Law of Peoples Carl Schmitt, The Concept of the Political Henry Shue, Basic Rights Yael Tamir. Liberal Nationalism       Michael Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars

6. Identity, difference and pluralism Benedict Anderson. Imagined Communities Anthony Appiah and Amy Gutmann, Color Conscious Brian Barry, Culture and Equality Seyla Benhabib, et al., Feminist Contentions: A Philosophical Exchange Seyla Benhabib, ed., Democracy and Difference Ernest Gellner, Nations and Nationalism Will Kymlicka, Multicultural Citizenship David Miller, On Nationality Susan Okin, Justice, Gender and the Family Carole Pateman, The Sexual Contract Yael Tamir. Liberal Nationalism     Charles Taylor, ‘The Politics of Recognition,’ in A. Gutmann, ed., Multiculturalism and the Politics of Recognition Iris Marion Young, Justice and the Politics of Difference

7. Justice and equality Elizabeth Anderson, ‘What is the point of equality?,’ Ethics 109 (1999)  M. Clayton and A. Williams (eds) The Ideal of Equality (papers by: Nagel, Scanlon, Parfit) G.A.Cohen, ‘On the Currency of Egalitarian Justice,’ Ethics 99 (1989)              G.A. Cohen, Self-:Ownership, Freedom and Equality G.A. Cohen, Rescuing Justice and Equality
Ronald Dworkin, Sovereign Virtue Harry Frankfurt, ‘Equality as a Moral Ideal,’ Ethics, 1987 (or as repr. in his The Importance of What We Care About) Thomas Nagel, Equality and Partiality Robert Nozick, Anarchy State and Utopia Susan Okin. Justice, Gender and the Family John Rawls, A Theory of Justice John Rawls, Political Liberalism Michael Sandel, Liberalism and the Limits of Justice     T. M. Scanlon, ‘Contractualism and Utilitarianism,’ in A. Sen and B. William, eds., Utilitarianism and    Beyond, or in Scanlon, The Difficulty of Toleration Amartya Sen, ‘Equality of What?’ in Sen, Choice, Welfare, and Measurement  Michael Walzer, Spheres of Justice Bernard Williams, ‘The Idea of Equality,’ repr. in Williams, Problems of the Self  Iris Marion Young, Justice and the Politics of Difference

8. Power Brian Barry, Democracy, Power and Justice (essays on power) Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish    Michel Foucault, ‘Power, Right, Truth,’ in P. Pettit and R. Goodin (eds) A Companion to Political    Philosophy Albert Hirschmann, Exit, Voice, and Loyalty Steven Lukes, Power: a radical view Steven Lukes, ed., Power Robert Nozick, ‘Coercion,’ in S. Morgenbesser and M. White (eds) Philosophy, Science and Method: Essays in Honor of Ernest Nagel     Max Weber, ‘Politics as a Vocation’ and ‘Bureaucracy,’ in H.H. Gerth and C.W. Mills (eds) From Max Weber, chs 4, 8

9.  Public reason Seyla Benhabib, Situating the Self: Gender, Community, and Postmodernism in Contemporary Ethics  Joshua Cohen, ‘Truth and Public Reason,’ Philosophy and Public Affairs 37 (2009) 2-42 Raymond Geuss, The Idea of a Critical Theory Jürgen Habermas, ‘Discourse Ethics: Notes on a Program of Philosophical Justification,’ in Habermas, Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action Alasdair Maclntyre, After Virtue Michael Oakeshott, Rationalism in Politics John Rawls, Political Liberalism John Rawls, ‘The Idea of Public Reason Revisited,’ in The Law of Peoples Michael Walzer, The Company of Critics Bernard Williams, Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy Bernard Williams, In the Beginning Was the Deed

10. Rights Joel Feinberg, ‘The Nature and Value of Rights,’ repr. in Rights, Justice and the Bounds of Liberty      John Finnis, Natural Law and Natural Rights W. N. Hohfeld, Fundamental Legal Conceptions Robert Nozick, Anarchy State and Utopia Henry Shue, Basic Rights Charles Taylor, ‘Atomism,’ in Taylor, Philosophical Papers, vol. 2 Jeremy Waldron, ed.. Rights, esp. Introduction, articles by Hart and MacDonald Jeremy Waldron, The Right to Private Property
(On rights, also consider works by Dworkin, Nozick, Rawls, Raz and Waldron under Freedom above.)
Appendix: Approaches to the study of political thought
Isaiah Berlin, ’Does Political Theory Still Exist?,’ Philosophy, Politics and Society, ed. P. Laslett and W.G.   Runciman, second series, repr. in Berlin, The Proper Study of Mankind William Connolly, ‘Essentially Contested Concepts in Politics,’ in The Terms of. Political Discourse  Michael Freeden, Ideologies and Political Theory John Rawls, Lectures on the History of Political Philosophy     Quentin Skinner, ‘Meaning and Understanding in the History of Ideas,’ History and Theory 8 (1969), 3-53, repr. in J. Tully, ed., Meaning and context: Quentin Skinner and his critics; revised version in Skinner, Visions of Politics, vol.1, with other relevant essays on method     Leo Strauss, ‘What is Political Philosophy?,’ ‘Persecution and the Art of Writing,’ repr. in What is Political Philosophy? James Tully, ed., Meaning and Context    Sheldon Wolin , ‘Political Theory as a Vocation,’ APSR 63 (1969) 1062-82, repr. in M. Fleisher, ed.,              Machiavelli and the Nature of Political Thought






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